English vocabulary is a requisite part of English learning. Teachers always apply vocabulary pedagogy to both listening and speaking class as well as reading and writing class in junior middle school.?But it usually seems boring for some students in a traditional class. Though it can give students enough basic knowledge, it can’t cultivate students’?learning mind-set and the ability of oriented learning. Therefore, it’s a good choice to apply Scaffolding Instruction in teaching. It was found that applying it can make up the shortages of traditional classes. After listing some related conceptions of Scaffolding Instruction, probing the features of scaffolding and arranging the process of applying it, writer puts up forward some suggestions of teaching. It advocates that a teacher should help students in constructing their own conceptual framework, cultivating their ability of learning independently and communicating with others. That would lay the foundation of students’?lifelong learning.
Key words: Scaffolding Instruction; Constructivism; Junior Middle school English
1.1 Research Background
It is now generally accepted that the Vocabulary Pedagogy is significant in Junior Middle School. Apparently, vocabulary is fundamental to render, which is also essential to English learners. Vocabulary plays an important role in English learning. Although none of the Vocabulary Pedagogy class is in Middle School, Vocabulary Pedagogy interpenetrates the English class. You can find it here and there in listening, speaking, reading and writing class. Students learn vocabulary by text-teaching which provides enough situations to attract them. Additionally, students are asked to master it by listening, reading and writing. Sometimes, provided that you listen and read mindlessly, you could not take in anything. When you can listen and speak out, read and write, that means you can use it fluently, after that you have mastered it already. It’s not easy to reach the highest level which you could write what you learned in your writing. Therefore you should take effective Vocabulary Pedagogy mode to possess up-to-date knowledge, in which students are asked to learn new words by mastering its usage and consolidate it by exercising of listening, speaking and writing with their own experience, knowledge and ability.
However, it’s so difficult that you could apply it in practice of teaching nowadays. Because of the exam-oriented education, some teachers are inclined to teach words by repeating their meaning and grammar, ignoring the function of learner’s self-directed learning and the pragmatics of English. It leads to the problem that students just learn vocabulary for exam but for expression and usage. Moreover, it makes the learning process rigid and inefficient. This kind of cramming teaching mode does harm to the English Class in Middle School by making the class boring for its unvaried class process. You would not find any attraction in a traditional class. For students, they learn the basic learning strategies and learning methods but lose the chance of developing ability of good learning mentality and the power of self-directed learning. It may not be good for their lifelong learning.
Currently, Scaffolding Instruction based on Constructivism is popular in English teaching class. It can encourage learners’?learning interests, promoting the ability of students’?learning and constructing their mode of thinking.
From a pedagogical viewpoint, Scaffolding Instruction is an approach, in which the teacher is considered to be a conductor who designs a number of useful frameworks to lead learners to get the knowledge in order, just like scaffolding in building a house. It does well in guidance, which is of help to learners in self-learning. The difference with traditional English class is that, in essence, Scaffolding Instruction based on Constructivism shows the value of student-centered. Therefore, in constructivists’?view, the student is thinking humankind who has his own views on the world. Therefore, teachers should communicate with students with respect. Students are divided into groups for cooperation-learning and discussion. Teachers are asked to join them for answering questions and giving a hand in time. Only in this way can teachers well know everyone’s learning characteristics even the physical and mental development.
Constructivism is a theory about knowledge and learning based on philosophy, psychology and anthropology. It emerged in the end of 1950s and it was prevalent in 1960s. Nowadays, it still influences the Western educational world.
It concerns that learners should understand the essence of acknowledge and seek for acquiring it. It advocates that knowledge is constructed by learners but passed on by teachers. Early constructivist scholar representatives are Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky and Jerome Seymour Bruner, and today’s representatives are Gardner, Goodman and Brooks. Among them, the first one to put forward the theory was Piaget. He thinks that every cognitive activity has its own stable cognitive structure. Moreover, children’s cognitive structure is dissimilar to adults’?cognitive structure. After studying and mastering the degree of children’s intrinsic maturity, he found the feature of stages which is about children’s cognition to the outer world in each stage of their growth. He indicated that all of the education should be based on the regulation of cognitive structure’s development in children’s growth, including writing text books and teaching activities.
After 1990s, there are many typical teaching modes based on it, which occupy an important place. Constructivist educational scholars consider that teaching is to sustain, guide and assist. It isn’t to pump facts, arrange the whole learning process and substitute for learners. The teacher should be a conductor and helper, promoting learners to take the initiative to conduct knowledge, not just a square imparter. Therefore, learning activity is the process of learners to learn spontaneously. With a teacher’s support, guidance and assistance, learners conduct and internalize knowledge gradually. It is obvious that learners control the learning process instead of accepting it passively.
1.4 The Definition of Scaffolding
Scaffolding appears in 1300 in construction trade. It comes from scaffold, which means “a structure made of scaffolding, for workers to stand on when they are working on a buildings”?according to the Oxford Dictionary. But today it is applied widely. You can see it everywhere. Such as, the bracket, the kickstand, the tripod for a camera, the tripod of Bunsen burner used in chemistry, the stent in medicine and so on. It’s a concept to express a support to hold something in reality. According to the Oxford Dictionaries, scaffolding means “poles and boards made into a temporary framework that is used by workers when they are painting, repairing, or building high parts of a building, usually outside.”
It is an element which supports people with material in construction. It is helpful in buildings and large structures. Just think about it, you want to erect a tall building and the scaffolding could give you a hand to reach the area where you are unable by yourself. But when the building was done, the scaffolding is useless and you can reach the area by yourself. So as teaching, learners are just like buildings and whose autonomic learning progress is just like the progress of building a house. When a learner tries to learn a foreign language, he who may need the scaffolding to reach the area where he was likely to be lost. The scaffolding offers learners an impermanent but skillful support to make him finish a task successfully.
Scaffolding Instruction is a process for learners to accomplish a task. The first one to introduce Scaffolding Instruction is Jerome Bruner in the late 1950s. He is a famous cognitive psychologist who described scaffolding as a metaphor. In his study, he said it was a “process that enables a child or novice to solve a problem, carryout a task or achieve a goal which would be beyond his unassisted efforts”?(Wood, Bruner & Ross, 1976: 90). Therefore, teachers are asked to give enough guidance to learners in autonomic learning. Also, teachers should take some effective measures to make learners participating in content area learning and acquiring academic skills. Successful scaffolding could make the class attractive, the simple task and the clear explanation of knowledge. There are five producers of Scaffolding Instructions as follows: building scaffolding, entering situations, exploring independently, learning collaboratively and effects. Teachers should be careful in each teaching process. Every step in the process plays an important role in teaching. In this way, learners could finish the task independently.
To say the least, there are no easier ways to learn a foreign language than Scaffolding Instruction. You may have a suspicion that the idea seems too absolute to convince you. Indeed, there are many effective instructions for learning and teaching. Scaffolding Instruction is not perfect for which it still lacks practical subjective and objective conditions in the applications of Middle School. But there is no doubt that Scaffolding Instructions based on Constructivism is of great significance as a teaching instruction in practice in the course. It assists learners a lot in their autonomic learning by building and afterward removing scaffolding.
In a word, in Scaffolding Instruction, the teacher is a supporter to offer knowledge and conductor to assist learners in constructing their own knowledge system as learners have mastered the skills.
Scaffolding is one of the important parts in Scaffolding Instruction. Teachers should learn the features of it for applying it in Vocabulary Pedagogy well. There are four main features of scaffolding and applications below.
The feature of clarity means that the scaffolding constructed by teachers could be distinguished easily by students. That is, students could know the purpose of teaching without delay by the given aims. The scaffolding given first could be a picture, a question, a talking topic and so on. Anyway, the purpose of it must be clear but ambiguous. For example, you present the class a picture of a man with books in his hand and you ask students to answer the question “What is he going to do?”?No one knows for sure. There are many possibilities. He may go to school to have a class. He may go to the library to read some books. He may go home for rest. It would make your students confused and give an answer with guesstimate. They don’t know the purpose of the man in the picture just like they don’t know the purpose of their teacher’s question. They may guess the purpose of it. “Does our teacher try to exercise us for the answer of future tenses? But what is the answer?”?Therefore, it is important for teachers to give scaffolding with clear purpose without subjective assume. It must be adapted to students’?uptake.
The scaffolding in Scaffolding Instruction is just like a signpost. It gives you direction and destination. You can easily reach the point by the introduction of it. For example, this is a listening class. Before listening, you present the class a picture of the word ‘Sports’?with six kinds of sports pictures. You ask them to write down the related sports names below the six pictures. The easy and interesting task will not only draw students’?attention, but also make them clear about the word ‘sports’?well. While listening, you ask students to fill out a form, which includes three parts “name, activity and time.”?These three parts are related to the conversation. It seems more directional with its clear pointer words and the picture is adapted to students’?cognitive reality. Also, the key words in the pictures and blanks help students understand the conversation. Students could accomplish the task easily with the clue.
In a word, the feature of clarity of scaffolding should be clear in aims, directional in request and sufficient in clue.
The feature of encouragement means that a teacher should incentivize students to study further, especially something good or bright. That means teachers should praise students orally or applaud them, more to the point, teachers should ply students with questions one step at a time so that students could be inspired by teacher’s expectant words and look. You can just imagine that if a teacher says “Thank you, sit down please.”?or “Who can help him?”?to a student giving a wrong answer, how bad the student would feel. It is bad for the student’s confidence. Moreover, he may lose an alternative to express his thought. But if you try to ply him with deeper questions and help him to find out his wrong points, something would change. He may construct a thinking mode of answering the question. He may be confident and clear in learning. He may look at the questions deeper and broader. That’s the feature of encouragement of the scaffolding.
The purpose of encouraging scaffolding is to drive students to consider more and deeper. How to deal with those students who are right? For instance, when a teacher asks a student the question that “What do you often do in your free time?”?And the student answers “I usually listen to music.”?Is the topic end? It is obviously not. The teacher could ask more about the music to go on the topic. Such as “What kinds of music do you like?”?or “What kind of instrument do you like?”?And the example above is not a cherry picking. What does it lack? It lacks the purpose of the question, which doesn’t meet to the main topic in class. Indeed, it may inspire them but it also makes the topic go without directions. Before constructing scaffolding, you should think about two questions. “What is your question for?”?and “What kind of goal should your students achieve?”?The feature of encouragement is not only about questioning deeper but also about meeting to the main topic of the class. If your topic is about music, and the class is going to learn the kind of music, and you can start the class with a question “Do you usually listen to music in your free time?”?And guide students to talk about the kind of music step by step.
In a word, the feature of encouragement of the scaffolding should inspire students by following-up questions aiming at the topic.
The feature of fading-out means the scaffolding should be removed gradually when learners’?learning ability is improved. Although the supporter is decreasing, learners still could finish the task independently. In this way, learners could learn self-correcting without the help of others. That is because the scaffolding is combining with the mode of learners’?mind, which makes progress in his learning ability. The scaffolding learned has already been unable to keep pace with the need of learners. So it is important to remove it step by step for learners’?learning ability increasing. So as to the teacher, as the provider of the scaffolding, should avoid the self-inclination of arranging students’?learning too much and removing the scaffolding too low. That may cause students to rely on the scaffolding too much and lose the chance to learn independently. If students couldn’t apply the knowledge by themselves, they may not master it.
But what is the fading of scaffolding on earth and how to deal with it step by step in class. For example, a teacher asks a student to describe his pets according to some questions, such as “What pet do/don’t you like?”?“What does it look like?”?and “Why do or don’t you like it?”?But the student doesn’t know how to answer because of his lack of English words. So a teacher gives him some adjective words for reference on the power-point. Such as the positive words: clever, clean, friendly and so on; the negative words: dirty, lazy, stupid and so on. When the student uses the words given to answer and he reviews the usual words and learn how to answer the question. So do other students, they also know how to answer. Moreover, some of them who are cleverer could occur to other adjective words to answer. It is the magic of scaffolding. So when the first one finished his questions, teachers could withdraw the reference words or encourage them to answer with other words. It is the first step in fading the scaffolding. The second step, teachers should take away the questions. After all, it is also scaffolding. Teachers could let students discuss in group and then report it to the class. The questions could be instead of a report example, just like“My favorite pet is a dog. It’s…”?or “I don’t like pigs. Because it’s…”?After they have finished it, one of them could report before others without papers and there is also no examples in power-point. When the student presents his report, others listening to him carefully also remove the scaffolding and review the task again. That is the process of fading scaffolding. It really does a lot.
The feature of dynamics means that the scaffolding designed before class should change because of students’?learning ability and the uncertain teaching situation. In a teacher’s teaching plan, the scaffolding designed before class may be ideal and the process of the teaching class would be appropriate and perfect. But in most of the time, when teachers applied the ideal in reality class, he would always find something uncontrolled here and there. Sometimes students may not get the meaning of the scaffolding. Sometimes students may think it is too easy to concentrate on the task. Sometimes the scaffolding used in last class seems not suitable in today’s task. The uncertain teaching situation makes the ideal class lose control. Therefore, teachers should be concerned with students’?learning ability and the uncertain teaching situation when applies the scaffolding. Teachers can choose the scaffolding and change it in a flexible way with the varied class situation. For example, in reading class, a teacher asks students to read a passage and underline the topic sentence of each paragraph, then complete the structure of the text. But some students don’t know the meaning of “the topic sentences”?so that they can’t do the job. Teachers could change another expression like “underline the sentence which expresses the main idea of a paragraph”?for explanation. And then they may be clear about the request. If they still be confused about how to find the main idea of a paragraph, the teacher could present how to find the first paragraph’s main idea for example. That would make them clearer in action. Then there is no stock in questioning. The teaching could go on smoothly.
In a word, when applying scaffolding, teachers should be flexible and try to adjust and update it.
Setting up scaffolding is equal to the lead-in in teaching producers. A good lead-in is the half of success in teaching. It is important for a teacher to set up the skillful scaffolding to begin a class. It should aim to construct and convey the purpose of learning goals for all students distinctly. Therefore, the scaffolding related closely to the learning topic should be combined with students’?learning features and their cognitive regulations. That is, what students are to learn should suit what they had learned, which would be helpful. For instance, if students have learned a new word, teachers could add affix in the word to change its meaning as contrast in learning. He writes the word “happy”?on the blackboard, which is known to all students. Then he put the prefix “un”?in front of it and tells students ‘un’?in the beginning of the word means “not”. So that students would learn the word “unhappy”, which means somebody doesn’t feel happy. Based on the root and affix, students could learn many words, which could attract students’?attention and check their cognitive level.
Indeed, there are some similarities between Scaffolding Instruction and traditional class. But compared with them carefully, you would find the differences that the former one aims to set real scenes and the latter just does a review merely without any attraction. Besides with the settle of the scaffolding, students could distinguish what they are going to learn quickly without doubt. For example, many students have their different hobbies in daily life. It’s easy to begin a topic about hobbies with students because it’s interesting. Therefore, teachers should choose some questions to begin a class, which is close to the topic and foreshadows the following, such as the question “What do you often do in your spare time?”?That may guide the class to have a discussion.
Entering the situation means teachers should draw students into a certain problem situation with some questions. Teachers should give some objects closed to the subject, which could be pictures, videos or something visible, anything they could present. The main purpose of it is to lead students in the situation teachers created without distraction. Making sure they are in a certain problem, teachers should give some questions about the topic to lead students in the real situation. Without social and culture situation, learning couldn’t institute because of the limitation of the headspace. If you don’t know what the basketball is, you would be hard to know basketball game or rules of basketball match. Therefore, teachers should give students a real situation to make sure they reach the topic.
For example, when it comes to the topic of Sports, the teaching task is to read a passage named Basketball which introduces basketball briefly in its current situations, history and the regulation of basketball match. It is a clever way to begin the task with a video of a basketball game. It could lead students to enter the basketball match. And the teacher asks some questions like “Do you like playing basketball?”?“Is a basketball game exciting?”?“How many players are there in a basketball team?”?Such talks would be interesting to make students review the words they have learned by talking. Students would be eager to learn more about basketball and they may have patience in reading the passage. At this time, the teacher reminds students what each paragraph is about in time. The students would be clearer about the passage structure. And it makes the reading process more vivid. In this way, they would have entered the situation and on top of that they would be more initiative in learning and coordinate with their teachers.
Independent exploration aims to make students analyze and solve problems independently whether it happens in class or outside class. To reach the goal, students should construct their own conceptual frameworks of knowledge gradually with the help of teachers. Because of the lack of the learning method among most students, teachers’?assistance is significant in class. It includes two parts, one is teachers’?guidance at the beginning of the exploration and the other is teachers’?assistance during the process of students’?exploration. In the part of guidance, teachers could no longer support excessive scaffolding but turn to teach students some related lexical phrase or collection, which is good for their exploration of the knowledge independently. In the part of assistance, teachers should give a hand when students are confused. By this way, the impression of the knowledge would be deepened and the framework in students’?mind would be completed. The teacher is asked to contract giving help increasingly so that students can exercise the ability of independent exploration. Obviously, the teacher, as a guider and helper, isn’t the owner of the class. Students are the center of the class. Therefore, students finish the task in their own way, which is the best step to increase their learning strategies.
For example, it comes to a passage called “Animals in Danger”. When students have comprehended the passage, they may have different understandings to this topic. Then the teacher asks students to answer the question that “Why are pandas, blue whales and Chinese tigers in danger?”?which is close to the passage theme. They may answer it from the text. It doesn’t matter. That would make them more familiar with the use of words and clearer in the sentences pattern. When they are answering the questions, teachers should walk around the class to give suggestions. After class, students are asked to retell the passage in their own words. In this way, they can review the words they have learned and use them to make their own sentences for comprehending the words better.
Cooperative learning is usual in English class. Students discuss in groups and share their ideas with each other. New knowledge and confusion are presented in groups during discussion, which is beneficial to students’?thinking collision. When a student comes across a new word, he may not understand the meaning or just know one meaning in the text. If someone puts up the word and explains its meaning related to the topic, he would be suddenly enlightened and construct a conceptual framework in their mind, like a mind map in mind. That is, after seeing a word, he who may have awareness of its synonyms, antonyms, different kinds of meanings, different part of speeches, hyponymy and so on. In today’s mid-text papers, especially the reading part, the tests, it inspects students’?collections of words’?synonyms, part of speeches and the ability of vocabulary transformation, which is becoming more and more important. Therefore, it’s necessary for students to discuss the rule of words transformation or make a full survey of the new words after class.
Besides, it is noteworthy that hyponymy, which means that the semantic relation of being subordinate or belonging to a lower rank or class, can’t ignore in English class. It is important in remembering and collecting new words in a particular rank. For example, if the topic is “Plants and animals are important to us”?and there are some new words of animals, you can ask students to discuss and list the animals in farm and they may list some words in text or in his mind. Such as cow, horse, rabbit and so on. When they are sharing, the picture of farm of different animals would be presented in their mind. In this way, they are more impressive. This is a way of extending words. ?The framework could not only be constructed by hyponymy, but also be made by the daily living goods related to the topic or given in the text. It depends on the relation to the topic.
The discussion is the last part of the class but not the least. Teachers should participate in their discussions. Teachers should not only encourage shy students to participate in groups and share their ideas confidently, but also encourage some speaking-without-thinking students to answer as full as possible. That would make cooperative learning meaningful.
An effective evaluation should do tests not only about the knowledge been taught, but also the degree of students’?satisfaction to class process. The former one is about students’?evaluation by groups’?summary and a quiz of new knowledge, which focuses on what they have learned or misunderstood. The latter one is about teachers’?evaluation by students’?feedback to the class and teachers’?reflection to the class, which focuses on the unreasonable class activities or excessive scaffolding. Only in this way, class is going to be better. This is the corollary of student-oriented class.
There are always two sides to everything, and it is without exception for English words class. The traditional class is good for examinations and students can get the knowledge directly and quickly. But it always ignores to cultivate student-oriented ability and it may make students confused in remembering words. Therefore, Scaffolding Instruction appears and its advantages could cover the shortages of traditional classes. So it is important for teachers to learn the problems in students’?learning and take up the suggestions to help students be better.
The traditional class brings a lot of problems. Below are some problems with it. First of all, students are cramming the words without order. They are studious but they haven’t constructed the conceptual framework of the words they learned so that they may pick up the words quickly and lose the meanings of them quickly. When they come across a word in passages or in daily life, they may just know a simple meaning of the text but don’t know the real meaning in the passage. They lack the ability of guessing meaning. Besides, for dealing with exams, they had learned the words spelling only, but their pronunciations may be inaccurate. They read the words or the text in their way. They may stress every word in sentence or always stress a word in its former part. Last but not least, they are divorced from real life. They just recite English in text but they are unable to talk confidently with others in English like in Chinese. They have lost the chance of speaking and using English for a long time so that they couldn’t speak to the public fluently. If they have a chance, they may rely on papers.
For coping with the problems in words learning, there are some suggestions in words teaching according to Scaffolding Instruction. Firstly, teachers should help students to construct their own conceptual frameworks by constructing some scaffolding for remembering the words and giving them chances to present themselves in class. Besides, talking is always a good way to use English. Teachers should attach importance in cooperative work. During the activities and discussions, they would enhance their confidence, after that they would rather to speak out English. When they are speaking out English, teachers should not only praise and encourage them to talk more, but also point out their error in pronunciation or grammar. Last but not least, teachers should contact actual life closely in teaching or setting a real situation which is familiar with students. That would make students master the knowledge firmly.
In junior middle schools English teaching, students don’t have specialized English words class. They learn words in different kinds of class. But the traditional class is so mechanical that students couldn’t cultivate their learning interest. Therefore, the application of Scaffolding Instruction in junior middle school is necessary. Scaffolding Instruction is a skillful teaching model, which can make up the shortages of the traditional class. It does well in cultivating students’?learning ability by constructing a conceptual scaffolding and encouraging them to communicate with others.
If a teacher wants to construct a skilled conceptual framework, he may need to learn the feature of scaffolding thoroughly. The good scaffolding is the basic of conceptual framework. The paper had probed four features of scaffolding. The feature of clarity claims teachers to present such clear information which makes students understand fully. The feature of encouragement requires teachers to take note of encouraging students to talk more in a comfortable way. The feature of fading-out demands teachers to keep his eyes on withdrawing the scaffolding gradually when students know the framework. The feature of dynamics calls for teachers to use the scaffolding in a flexible way. The real class situation is active and changeable, so teachers should learn how to change the scaffolding. But the class procedures are fixed, Scaffolding Instruction has its own class process even after class. There are five procedures including setting up scaffolding, entering the situation, independent exploration, cooperative learning and effective evaluation. Before class, teachers should set up the scaffolding related to the topic and helping students in lead-in. The scaffolding should also help students go into a certain situation which is known for most students. Students need to construct their own conceptual frameworks with the scaffolding. An independent thinking time and an active communication would help a lot. After class, both students and teachers should have an evaluation. The real effective evaluation is not only reflected in the test results, but also in the class process especially the excessive or confused parts.
Certainly, there are some problems in students’?words learning from traditional class. Never mind, there are some suggestions to cope with them according to Scaffolding Instruction. First of all, a good and self-consistent lead-in is important for its function to construct a conceptual framework in students’?mind. Besides, giving students a plat to show themselves and encouraging them to think deeper are necessary. Finally, to be in real situation closed to daily life would make class lively and familiar.
In this way, students would do oriented learning better. And it’s also good for their constructing their mode of thinking. The teacher’s teaching ability would also be developed in this kind of class. It really does well in the life-long education.
- Wang, Sneed. Exploring the Design of Scaffolding Pedagogical Instruction for Elementary Preservice Teacher Education [J]. Routledge, 2019, 30(5).
- ZhengWenshu,?Wang? Teachers’?Questioning Strategies from the Perspective of Scaffolding Instruction in EFL Classrooms?[J]. Francis Academic Press,?2019,?2(4).
- 閆先鳳. 支架式英語閱讀教學的價值及其實現[J].教學與管理,2018(09):87-89.
- 朱玲. 支架式教學模式在英語寫作中的應用[J].中國教育學刊,2016(S1):114-115.
- 張曉雪. 支架式教學在中學英語教學中的應用[J].課程教育研究,2020(04):103-104.
- 張媛媛. 支架式教學在初中英語閱讀教學中的運用[J].現代交際,2019(24):176-177.
- 張慧. 支架式教學在農村初中英語閱讀教學中的應用研究[D].河南大學,2019.
- 余海燕. 支架式教學模式在初中英語閱讀教學中的應用研究[D].貴州師范大學,2019.
- 劉文言. 例談支架式教學在初中英語閱讀課中的運用[J].文教資料,2019(14):230-233.
- 凌峰. 支架式教學法在初中英語詞匯教學中的應用分析[J].英語教師,2018,18(06):74-75+78.
- 韓雯. 支架式教學在高中英語詞匯教學中的應用[D].青海師范大學,2018.
- 朱俊梵. 支架式教學模式在初中英語閱讀課堂中的應用研究[D].河南師范大學,2017.
- 武順利. 如何有效地開展初中英語詞匯教學[J].中國校外教育,2017(36):78.
- 申倩. 我國中小學英語課堂應用支架式教學的現狀與反思[D].湖南師范大學,2016.
- 梁亞冰. 支架式教學在英語詞匯學教學中的應用[J].浙江萬里學院學報,2012,25(03):106-109.
- 劉瑋華. Constructive Task-based Teaching Approach on English Reading [J]. 校園英語, 2017(41):1-1.